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Patient Preparation: Do not give sample within 7 days of Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) or Rectal Prostatic Ultrasonography.
Prostate cancer is increasingly being diagnosed these days, and a frequent cause of death related to cancer. Early detection is very important for optimal treatment. To screen men for the risk of prostate cancer. If PSA is found to be above normal values it may indicate cancer of the prostate and having a need for a prostrate biopsy, wherein a small part of the prostate tissue is taken out by the doctor, and observed under a microscope to check for any abnormalities or cancerous cells to confirm or rule out the diagnosis. However, high PSA levels do not always mean cancer. Also, it's checked to monitor the effectiveness of anticancer drug treatment for prostate cancer, if PSA lowers during the treatment period it means that the treatment is effective.
The PSA test is ordered when the doctor suspects prostate cancer. The most common symptoms of prostate cancer are:
Weak urine flow
Interrupted urine flow
Difficulty or having to strain to empty the bladder.
The urge to urinate frequently at night
Blood in the urine
Blood in the seminal fluid
New onset of erectile dysfunction
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced primarily by cells in the prostate, a small gland present in males, in between the bladder (organ for storing urine) and the penis (male genital organ). Most of the PSA that the prostate produces are released into this fluid, but small amounts of it are also released into the bloodstream. This test tells you how much PSA is present in the blood, and if present above normal values indicates further testing for prostate cancer.
PSA levels differs as per age and needs to be interpreted with age and symptoms presented.
If high levels are seen, there is a need to check further into this by conducting a prostate biopsy. If low or normal range is noted, prostate biopsy maybe unnecessary. Consult your doctor to know more about this.
Sample: Serum (2 mL)